3D bioprinting of collagen to rebuild components of the human heart

3D bioprinting is still a fairly new technique that has been limited in terms of resolution and by the materials that can be printed. Lee et al. describe a 3D printing technique to build complex collagen scaffolds for engineering biological tissues (see the Perspective by Dasgupta and Black). Collagen gelation was controlled by modulation of pH and could provide up to 10-micrometer resolution on printing. Cells could be embedded in the collagen or pores could be introduced into the scaffold via embedding of gelatin spheres. The authors demonstrated successful 3D printing of five components of the human heart spanning capillary to full-organ scale, which they validated for tissue and organ function.

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