4D Bioprinting Smart Constructs for the Heart

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, accounting for nearly 18 million deaths each year, according to the World Health Organization. In recent years, scientists have looked to regenerative therapies – including those that use 3D-printed tissue – to repair damage done to the heart and restore cardiac function.

Thanks to advancements in 3D-printing technology, engineers have applied cutting-edge bioprinting techniques to create scaffolds and cardiac tissue that, once implanted, can quickly integrate with native tissues in the body. While 3D bioprinting can create 3D structures made of living cells, the final product is static – it cannot grow or change in response to changes in its environment.

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